Frederic S. Mishkin was appointed to the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System on September 5, 2006, to fill an unexpired term ending January 31, 2014. He resigned on August 31, 2008. From 1999 to 2006, Mishkin was the Alfred Lerner Professor of Banking and Financial Institutions at the Graduate School of Business, Columbia University. Before that, he was the A. Barton Hepburn Professor of Economics from 1991 to 1999 and professor at the Graduate School of Business from 1983 to 1991. He was also a research associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research (1980–2006) and a senior fellow at the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation’s Center for Banking Research (2003–06). From 1994 to 1997, he was executive vice president and director of research at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York and an associate economist for the Federal Open Market Committee. Mishkin has been a consultant to the World Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank, and the International Monetary Fund, as well as to numerous central banks throughout the world. He graduated with a doctorate from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 1999, he received an honorary professorship from the People’s (Renmin) University of China.
Randall S. Kroszner joined the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System on March 1, 2006. He left the Board on January 21, 2009. Kroszner accepted a position as an assistant professor at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business. From 2001 to 2003, Kroszner served on the President’s Council of Economic Advisers (CEA). Before joining the Board of Governors, Kroszner served the Federal Reserve System as a visiting scholar at the Board of Governors and a research consultant and a member of the Academic Advisory Panel at the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago. He was also a visiting scholar at the Federal Reserve Banks of New York, St. Louis, Kansas City, and Minneapolis. He graduated from Brown University and went on to graduate with a doctorate in economics from Harvard University in 1990.
Robert Edward Rubin is an American retired banking executive, lawyer, and former cabinet member. He served as the 70th United States Secretary of the Treasury during the Clinton administration. Before his government service, he spent 26 years at Goldman Sachs. During the Clinton administration, Rubin oversaw the loosening of financial industry underwriting guidelines. His most post-government role was as director and senior counselor of Citigroup, where he performed advisory and representational roles for the firm and resigned from the company on January 9, 2009. He received more than $126 million in cash and stock during his tenure at Citigroup, up through and including Citigroup’s bailout by the U.S. Treasury. Additionally, Rubin serves as counselor at Centerview Partners, an investment banking advisory firm based in New York City.
William C. Dudley became the 10th president and chief executive officer of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York on January 27, 2009. In that capacity, he served as the vice chairman and a permanent member of the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC). Previously, Dudley served as executive vice president of the Markets Group at the New York Fed, where he also managed the System Open Market Account for the FOMC. Prior to joining the Bank in 2007, he was a partner and managing director at Goldman, Sachs & Company and was the firm’s chief U.S. economist for a decade. Prior to joining Goldman Sachs in 1986, he was a vice president at the former Morgan Guaranty Trust Company. Dudley received his doctorate in economics from the University of California, Berkeley in 1982 and a bachelor’s degree from New College of Florida in 1974.
John Carroll Williams is the President and Chief Executive Officer of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, having also served as President of Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco from 2011-2018. He is currently serving as Vice Chairman of the Federal Open Market Committee. Prior to that, he was the executive vice president and director of research at the San Francisco Fed, which he joined in 2002. Williams began his career in 1994 as an economist at the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. In addition, he served as a senior economist in the White House Council of Economic Advisers and as a lecturer at Stanford University’s Graduate School of Business. Williams holds a Ph.D. in economics from Stanford University, an M.S. degree from the London School of Economics, and an A.B. from the University of California at Berkeley.
Timothy Franz Geithner is a former American central banker who served as the 75th United States Secretary of the Treasury under President Barack Obama, from 2009 to 2013. He was the President of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York from 2003 to 2009, following service in the Clinton administration. Since March 2014, he has served as president and managing director of Warburg Pincus, a private equity firm headquartered in New York City. At the New York Fed, Geithner helped manage crises involving Bear Stearns, Lehman Brothers, and the American International Group. Geithner graduated from Dartmouth College (BA) and Johns Hopkins University (MA).
James P. Gorman is a member of the board of directors at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. He is chairman and chief executive officer (CEO) of Morgan Stanley. Before joining Morgan Stanley, Mr. Gorman held a succession of executive positions at Merrill Lynch. Prior to this he was a senior partner of McKinsey & Co. and began his career as an attorney in Melbourne, Australia. He also serves as a director of the Council on Foreign Relations and formerly served as president of the Federal Advisory Council to the U.S. Federal Reserve Board, co-chairman of the Partnership for New York City, chairman of the Board of the Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association. Mr. Gorman, who was born in Australia, earned a bachelor of arts degree and a law degree from the University of Melbourne and a master of business administration degree from Columbia University.
Paul P. Mello is a member of the board of directors at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. He is the president and CEO of Solvay Bank headquartered and operating in Onondaga County, New York. Mr. Mello was appointed to the position in 2002. Before joining the Bank, Mello was a CPA and worked for Coopers & Lybrand in Syracuse from 1989 to 1993. He served as a member of the Community Depository Institutions Advisory Council of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York in 2011. He also served as the Chair of the Independent Bankers Association of New York State for two years. Mello earned a bachelor’s degree in accounting from LeMoyne College in 1989.
Adena T. Friedman is a member of the board of directors at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. She assumed the role of president and chief executive officer of Nasdaq in 2017 and is a member of the board of directors. Prior to her appointment as chief executive officer, Friedman served as president and chief operating officer of Nasdaq throughout 2016. Prior to that, she served as chief financial officer and managing director of The Carlyle Group from March 2011 to June 2014, and played a significant role in taking the company public in May 2012. Friedman earned an M.B.A. from Owen Graduate School of Management, Vanderbilt University, in Nashville, Tennessee. She holds a B.A. in political science from Williams College in Massachusetts.
Glenn H. Hutchins is a member of the board of directors at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. He is chairman of North Island and a co-founder of Silver Lake. He is a director of AT&T and of Virtu Financial, co-chairman of the Brookings Institution and CARE, and the Obama Foundation. He is also a member of the Investment Board of Singapore’s Government Investment Corporation. Previously, Hutchins served President Clinton in both the transition and the White House as a special advisor on economic and health-care policy. He was also previously chairman of the board of SunGard Data Systems, Inc. and Instinet, Inc. and a director of Nasdaq, Inc. He was also a director of Harvard Management Company and co-chairman of Harvard University’s capital campaign. Hutchins holds an A.B. from Harvard College, an M.B.A. from Harvard Business School, and a J.D. from Harvard Law School.
Charles Phillips is a member of the board of directors at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. He is chairman of the Board of Infor, the third largest business software applications company in the world. Prior to Infor, Phillips was president of Oracle Corporation and a member of its board of directors. Before Oracle, Phillips was a managing director at Morgan Stanley in the Technology Group and served on its board of directors. Phillips holds a B.S. in Computer Science from the U.S. Air Force Academy, a J.D. from New York Law School, and an MBA from Hampton University and is a member of the Georgia State Bar Association.
Vincent Alvarez is a member of the board of directors at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. He was elected as the New York City Central Labor Council, AFL-CIO’s (NYCCLC) first full-time president in 2011, and was re-elected in 2015. He had previously served as assistant legislative director of the NYS AFL-CIO. From 2007-2009, Alvarez was assistant to the executive director and then chief of staff of the NYCCLC. He is a member of the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers (IBEW) since 1990, Mr. Alvarez began his career with IBEW Local 3 in Flushing, New York, serving on numerous political campaigns, grassroots initiatives, and negotiating committees. He is a graduate of the State University of New York at Oneonta, where he majored in business economics.
Denise Scott is the Chair and member of the board of directors at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. She is executive vice president in charge of Local Initiatives Support Corporation’s (LISC) national and local programs. She served as a White House appointee to the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), responsible for the daily operations of HUD’s six New York/New Jersey Regional offices. Prior to that, she served as the managing director/coordinator responsible for launching the Upper Manhattan Empowerment Zone Development Corporation; as the assistant vice president of the New York City Urban Coalition; as deputy director of the New York City Mayor’s Office of Housing Coordination from 1990-1992; and as the director of the New York City Department of Housing and Development’s Harlem Neighborhood Preservation Program office. Scott has a master’s degree in Urban Planning from Columbia University and has taught at its Graduate School of Architecture, Planning, and Preservation as a visiting assistant professor.