Michael Held is a member of the executive committee at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. He is general counsel and executive vice president of the Legal Group at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. In addition, he serves as deputy general counsel of the Federal Open Market Committee. Mr. Held joined the New York Fed in 1998 as a staff attorney. Prior to joining the New York Fed, Held was an associate at McDermott, Will & Emery, LLP in the litigation department and prior to that, he was an associate at Kaye Scholer LLP. Held holds a bachelor’s degree from Cornell University in Human Service Studies and a juris doctor degree from New York University School of Law.
Jack Gutt is a member of the executive committee at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. He is executive vice president and head of the Communications and Outreach Group at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Gutt also serves on the Bank’s Executive Committee. Prior to joining the New York Fed, Gutt served as managing director at several leading public relations and public affairs firms and was one of the founding partners of Vistance Group LLC. Gutt joined the Bank in September 2009 as an officer in media relations and public affairs. Mr. Gutt holds degrees in newspaper journalism and political science, both from Syracuse University.
Michael Strine is first vice president at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, the second ranking officer in the Bank and its chief operating officer, as well as an alternate voting member of the Federal Open Market Committee. He leads or serves on key Federal Reserve System committees to govern technology, human resources, enterprise risk management, resources, policies and payments infrastructure. Prior to that, Strine was executive vice president and head of the Corporate Group. Before joining the Bank in 2013, he served as executive vice president and chief operating officer at the University of Virginia. Prior to his tenure at University of Virginia, Strine served as vice president, chief financial officer and treasurer for Johns Hopkins University. Strine earned his doctorate and master’s degree from Johns Hopkins University in political science, and completed graduate studies at the University of Delaware in public administration and budgeting.
Sarah Bloom Raskin took office as a member of the Board of Governors on October 4, 2010, to fill an unexpired term ending January 31, 2016. She resigned on March 13, 2014. Early in her career, she worked at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York and the Joint Economic Committee of the Congress. She was later managing director at the Promontory Financial Group. She also served as the banking counsel for the US Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. Before her appointment to the Board of Governors, Raskin was the commissioner of financial regulation for the State of Maryland. Raskin received a bachelor’s degree in economics (magna cum laude) from Amherst College and earned a law degree from Harvard Law School.
Frederic S. Mishkin was appointed to the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System on September 5, 2006, to fill an unexpired term ending January 31, 2014. He resigned on August 31, 2008. From 1999 to 2006, Mishkin was the Alfred Lerner Professor of Banking and Financial Institutions at the Graduate School of Business, Columbia University. Before that, he was the A. Barton Hepburn Professor of Economics from 1991 to 1999 and professor at the Graduate School of Business from 1983 to 1991. He was also a research associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research (1980–2006) and a senior fellow at the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation’s Center for Banking Research (2003–06). From 1994 to 1997, he was executive vice president and director of research at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York and an associate economist for the Federal Open Market Committee. Mishkin has been a consultant to the World Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank, and the International Monetary Fund, as well as to numerous central banks throughout the world. He graduated with a doctorate from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 1999, he received an honorary professorship from the People’s (Renmin) University of China.
Randall S. Kroszner joined the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System on March 1, 2006. He left the Board on January 21, 2009. Kroszner accepted a position as an assistant professor at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business. From 2001 to 2003, Kroszner served on the President’s Council of Economic Advisers (CEA). Before joining the Board of Governors, Kroszner served the Federal Reserve System as a visiting scholar at the Board of Governors and a research consultant and a member of the Academic Advisory Panel at the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago. He was also a visiting scholar at the Federal Reserve Banks of New York, St. Louis, Kansas City, and Minneapolis. He graduated from Brown University and went on to graduate with a doctorate in economics from Harvard University in 1990.
Robert Edward Rubin is an American retired banking executive, lawyer, and former cabinet member. He served as the 70th United States Secretary of the Treasury during the Clinton administration. Before his government service, he spent 26 years at Goldman Sachs. During the Clinton administration, Rubin oversaw the loosening of financial industry underwriting guidelines. His most post-government role was as director and senior counselor of Citigroup, where he performed advisory and representational roles for the firm and resigned from the company on January 9, 2009. He received more than $126 million in cash and stock during his tenure at Citigroup, up through and including Citigroup’s bailout by the U.S. Treasury. Additionally, Rubin serves as counselor at Centerview Partners, an investment banking advisory firm based in New York City.
William C. Dudley became the 10th president and chief executive officer of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York on January 27, 2009. In that capacity, he served as the vice chairman and a permanent member of the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC). Previously, Dudley served as executive vice president of the Markets Group at the New York Fed, where he also managed the System Open Market Account for the FOMC. Prior to joining the Bank in 2007, he was a partner and managing director at Goldman, Sachs & Company and was the firm’s chief U.S. economist for a decade. Prior to joining Goldman Sachs in 1986, he was a vice president at the former Morgan Guaranty Trust Company. Dudley received his doctorate in economics from the University of California, Berkeley in 1982 and a bachelor’s degree from New College of Florida in 1974.
John Carroll Williams is the President and Chief Executive Officer of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, having also served as President of Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco from 2011-2018. He is currently serving as Vice Chairman of the Federal Open Market Committee. Prior to that, he was the executive vice president and director of research at the San Francisco Fed, which he joined in 2002. Williams began his career in 1994 as an economist at the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. In addition, he served as a senior economist in the White House Council of Economic Advisers and as a lecturer at Stanford University’s Graduate School of Business. Williams holds a Ph.D. in economics from Stanford University, an M.S. degree from the London School of Economics, and an A.B. from the University of California at Berkeley.