Stanley Fischer took office as a member of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System on May 28, 2014, to fill an unexpired term ending January 31, 2020. He resigned on October 13, 2017. Prior to his appointment to the Board, Dr. Fischer was governor of the Bank of Israel from 2005 through 2013. From February 2002 to April 2005, Dr. Fischer was vice chairman of Citigroup. Dr. Fischer served as the first deputy managing director of the International Monetary Fund until August 2001. From January 1988 to August 1990, he was the chief economist of the World Bank. Dr. Fischer was born in Lusaka, Zambia, in October 1943. He received his BSc and MSc in economics from the London School of Economics. He received his PhD in economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.